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There are 119 questions tagged under Nervous System.

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1 Go

Q:

Which of the following is regulated by the hypothalamus?

A

heart rate

B

motor performance

C

appetite and body temperature

D

sleep and arousal functions

Tags: Nervous System |

2 Go

Q:

Which statement correctly characterizes the Nodes of Ranvier?

A

They are insulated by myelin sheaths.

B

They are insulated by Schwann cells.

C

They possess a double membrane used for developing a proton motive force for action potentials

D

They possess gated Na and K channels involved in action potentials

Tags: Nervous System |

3 Go

Q:

In the peripheral nervous system, which cell myelinates and in turn increases the action potential across a nerve axon?

A

Microglial cell

B

Oligodendrocyte

C

Astrocyte

D

Schwann cell

Tags: Nervous System |

4 Go

Q:

The myelin sheath is composed of which of the following?

A

Na and K channels and pumps

B

The plasma membrane of Schwann cells

C

Nodes of Ranvier

D

Soma

Tags: Nervous System |

5 Go

Q:

The spinal cord is composed of two structurally different tissues. Gray matter lies internal to white matter in the spinal cord. What accounts for the differences in color of these two tissues?

A

White matter is mainly composed of oligodendrocytes, which appear white to the naked eye.

B

Gray matter is much more highly condensed, giving it a gray look.

C

White matter axons are not myelinated while gray matter axons are.

D

Gray matter axons are not myelinated while white matter axons are.

Tags: Nervous System |

6 Go

Q:

After severe head trauma, a patient's co-ordination is severely impaired. Which of the following centers of his brain has most likely been affected?

A

cerebellum

B

hypothalamus

C

amygdala

D

cerebrum

Tags: Nervous System |

7 Go

Q:

Rods are responsible for which of the following parts of vision?

A

red

B

blue

C

yellow

D

black/white

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

8 Go

Q:

In most cases, neurotransmitters result in the propagation of

A

neurotransmitter gradient through the axon

B

action potential

C

neurotransmitter receptor movement from one end of a neuron to the other

D

propagation of a longitudinal wave along the myelin sheath

Tags: Nervous System |

9 Go

Q:

The word encephalopathy refers to which organ?

A

Liver

B

Intestines

C

Eyes

D

Brain

Tags: Nervous System |

10 Go

Q:

An individual has a disorder that leads to an inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system. The individual can be expected to lack which of the following abilities?

A

Increase in digestion

B

Maintenance of low heart rate

C

Dilation of pupils

D

Relaxing of muscles

Tags: Nervous System |

11 Go

Q:

In a particular synapse, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is administered. Which of the following impacts will be seen on the neuronal network?

A

Decreased production of acetylcholine

B

Decrease in neuronal stimulation

C

Increased rate of fatigue in the pre-synaptic neuron

D

Continuous stimulation of the post-synaptic neuron

Tags: Control of Enzyme Activity | Nervous System |

12 Go

Q:

Saltatory conduction functions to

A

Increase potassium concentrations in surrounding neurons

B

Increase conduction velocity

C

Prevent neurons from constant hyperpolarization

D

Control wave propogation and direction

Tags: Nervous System |

13 Go

Q:

Which part of the brain controls coordination and balance?

A

Hypothalamus

B

Cerebellum

C

Medulla

D

Cerebrum

Tags: Nervous System |

14 Go

Q:

The autonomic nervous system is part of the

A

aural nervous system

B

peripheral nervous system

C

sympathetic nervous system

D

parasympathetic nervous system

Tags: Nervous System |

15 Go

Q:

The Node of Ranvier is mainly composed of

A

Ion channels

B

Collagen

C

Keratin and melanin

D

Actin fibers

Tags: Nervous System |

16 Go

Q:

Which of the following structures is not related to hearing in humans?

A

Organ of Corti

B

Cochlea

C

Incus

D

Semicircular Canals

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

17 Go

Q:

Hyperpolarization is a phenomena seen in neurons after an action potential. This occurs due to

A

The rush of sodium out of the neuron

B

The rush of sodium into the neuron

C

The rush of potassium out of the neuron

D

The rush of potassium into the neuron

Tags: Nervous System |

18 Go

Q:

Which of the following is an example of positive feedback?

A

Estrogen spike during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.

B

Knee-jerk reflex pathway

C

Production of PTH

D

Insulin production

Tags: Nervous System | Endocrine System |

19 Go

Q:

Certain neurons have been found to have almost negligible refractory periods. What physiological property could be expected of this neuron?

A

Long time points between neuronal firing

B

Having very few sodium channels

C

Potassium channels with the ability to close very quickly

D

Lacking myelination on axons

Tags: Nervous System |

20 Go

Q:

Cone cells in our eyes detect the quality and quantity of light. When detecting differing levels of brightness of reflected light, what property of the light is being sensed?

A

Quantity of photons

B

Wavelength of photons

C

Frequency of photons

D

Phase of photons

Tags: Nervous System | Electromagnetics | Sensory Processing |

21 Go

Q:

Neural transduction occurs in which direction?

A

Cell body, dendrites, axon

B

Axon, dendrites, cell body

C

Axon, cell body, dendrites

D

Dendrites, cell body, axon

Tags: Nervous System |

22 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not true about the parasympathetic nervous system?

A

The parasympathetic system is a branch of the autonomic nervous system.

B

The postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system are located closer to the effector than those in the sympathetic system.

C

Epinephrine is used as a neurotransmitter.

D

The parasympathetic system redirects blood toward the digestive system.

Tags: Nervous System |

23 Go

Q:

Which provides the correct order in which sound waves travel through the ear (from the outside)?

A

round window, cochlea, tympanum, oval window

B

incus, malleus, stapes, oval window

C

eardrum, incus, oval window, cochlea

D

cochlea, malleus, round window, stapes

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

24 Go

Q:

Which of the following are responsible for differentiating color?

A

cones

B

rods

C

organ of Corti

D

loop of Henle

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

25 Go

Q:

Which of the following is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system?

A

dilation of pupils

B

increase of heart rate

C

cessation of digestion

D

activation of peristalsis

Tags: Nervous System |

26 Go

Q:

A primary advantage of ganglia in vertebrates is their ability to

A

process stimuli and responses faster than if the signal were to travel through the central nervous system.

B

act as a backup to the central nervous system in cases where there is significant cerebral damage.

C

detect stimuli that are finer than stimuli that are processed by the central nervous system.

D

illicit a more complex response than the central nervous system.

Tags: Nervous System |

27 Go

Q:

After an inner-ear infection, the hair cells in the semicircular canals of a patient are locked in position and are unable to move. This would most likely have which of the following effects?

A

inability to properly balance

B

deafness

C

constantly hearing a tune of a particular frequency

D

inability to coordinate auditory signals with visual signals

Tags: Nervous System |

28 Go

Q:

The voltage of a neuron decreases from a resting potential of -70 mV to -75 mV. Which of the following would be expected for this neuron?

A

Decreased firing

B

Increased depolarization from stimuli

C

Sodium channels which decrease the rate of sodium influx

D

All of the above

Tags: Nervous System |

29 Go

Q:

Which of the following would not be considered a part of the central nervous system?

A

Gracile nucleus

B

Hippocampus

C

Dorsal root ganglion

D

Spinal cord

Tags: Nervous System |

30 Go

Q:

Which of the following regions of the brain is almost completely composed of axons?

A

Cerebellum

B

Cerebrum

C

Posterior Pituitary

D

Thalamus

Tags: Nervous System |

31 Go

Q:

In the ear, sound is conveyed through the transfer of vibrational energy into the production of action potentials within specialized neuronal cells called hair cells. These cells are surrounded in a fluid called endolymph. Endolymph, unlike other bodily fluids, contains extremely high concentrations of potassium ions (K+). During excitation from vibrations, potassium flows into hair cells. Which of the following holds true regarding this phenomenon?

A

Hyperpolarization of the hair cells occurs, resulting in excitation of the cells

B

Sodium acts as the depolarizing agent for hair cells

C

Membrane potential of the hair cells drops upon stimulation

D

Hair cells become depolarized from the influx of potassium

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

32 Go

Q:

A particular amoeba utilizes a sodium-potassium transporter in order to maintain its intracellular ion concentrations. It is found that the pump has identical dynamics as the pump used in neurons of the human body. Extracellular concentration of sodium increases in the environment of the amoeba. Which of the following is likely to occur?

A

The pump will increase in activity

B

The pump will decrease in activity

C

The pump will keep the same activity

D

Not enough information provided

Tags: Nervous System |

33 Go

Q:

Horner's Syndrome is a condition where there are issues with a particular ganglion in the cervical (head) region, resulting in a constricted pupil and lack of sweating on the face. Which of the following holds true regarding this syndrome?

A

The syndrome is likely due to an increase in the activity of astrocytes in the CNS

B

The syndrome results in a parasympathetic dysfunction in the face

C

The syndrome results in a sympathetic dysfunction in the face

D

All of the above

Tags: Nervous System |

34 Go

Q:

An impaired cerebellum is likely to produce which of the following symptoms?

A

Inability to smell

B

Balance problems

C

Higher order processing deficits

D

All of the above

Tags: Nervous System |

35 Go

Q:

Neurons contain vital calcium-sensitive channels involved in a mechanism called afterhyperpolarization (AHP). AHP refers to the phase of the action potential during which the cell membrane is below resting potential. Which of the following statements regarding neurons and AHP is correct?

A

Removal of the AHP will not affect the refractory period

B

AHP is caused by efflux of potassium ions

C

Removal of these channels will result in decreased firing of neurons

D

All of the above are correct

Tags: Nervous System |

36 Go

Q:

Which of the following cellular components is sufficient to identify muscle cell from a neuron?

A

Na+/K+ pumps

B

Sharp changes in membrane potentials

C

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

D

None of the above

Tags: Nervous System | Musculoskeletal System |

37 Go

Q:

A chemotherapeutic that functions by inhibiting rapid cell division is applied to a body. Which of the following tissues would be most greatly affected?

A

the epithelium of the digestive tract

B

the muscle cells of the heart

C

neurons in the brain

D

osteoblasts in the bone

Tags: Nervous System | Circulatory System | Digestive System | Musculoskeletal System |

38 Go

Q:

During resting potential of a neuron

A

Voltage-gated potassium channels are entirely open

B

Sodium-potassium pumps are inactive

C

Action potentials may be observed

D

None of the above

Tags: Nervous System |

39 Go

Q:

Low calcium levels can lead to an increase in the permeability of neuronal membranes to sodium. Which of the following effects would be observed on the neuron?

A

decreased rate of firing

B

rise in the resting potential of the membrane

C

inability of muscles skeletal muscle to contract

D

increased speed of action potential conduction down an axon

Tags: Nervous System |

40 Go

Q:

Which of the following is correct about the knee-jerk reflex?

A

The arc of the knee jerk is dependent on higher cortical areas

B

Electric signals do not reach the cortex

C

It normally occurs in approximately 2 seconds

D

There are interneurons in the pathway leading to contraction of the quadriceps muscle

Tags: Nervous System |

41 Go

Q:

The production of a neurotransmitter closely associated with the autonomic nervous system is affected. This would most plausibly have which of the following impacts?

A

Reduced ability to grip objects.

B

Increased fatigue in skeletal muscle.

C

Reduced abstract cognitive ability.

D

Difficulty regulating smooth muscle in the digestive tract.

Tags: Nervous System |

42 Go

Q:

A driver gets into a car accident in which the anterior (towards the front of the body) region of one component of the spinal cord is damaged. Which of the following functions would not be expected to be affected?

A

Ability to feel pain over a region of the body

B

Ability to initiate muscular contraction over a region of the body

C

Lack of reflexes over a particular region of the body

D

All of the above would be affected

Tags: Nervous System |

43 Go

Q:

During temporary periods of high stress, peristalsis in the digestive system is slowed. The slowing of this function is primarily mediated by

A

parasympathetic nervous system.

B

sympathetic nervous system.

C

somatic nervous system.

D

None of the above.

Tags: Nervous System | Digestive System |

44 Go

Q:

Which of the following correctly describes the points at which voltage-gated channels open during an action potential?

A

Both sodium and potassium voltage-gated channels open when the membrane potential reaches -55 mV.

B

The voltage-gated sodium channels open when the membrane potential reaches -55 mV and the potassium channels open when the membrane potential reaches 40 mV.

C

The voltage-gated potassium channels open when the membrane potential reaches -55 mV and the sodium channels open when the membrane potential reaches 40 mV.

D

Both sodium and potassium voltage-gated channels open when the membrane potential reaches 40 mV.

Tags: Nervous System |

45 Go

Q:

An ion channel inhibitor is discovered which selectively targets potassium ion voltage-gated channels. Which of the following effects would this inhibitor most likely have on neurons?

A

Inhibition of action potential depolarization

B

Inhibition of repolarization after an action potential

C

Increase of the resting potential of the cell to 0 mV

D

Decrease in the sensitivity of action potential generation

Tags: Nervous System |

46 Go

Q:

Hair cells and stereocilia are a key component of which of the following?

A

Proprioception

B

Smell

C

Digestion

D

Scalp hair

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

47 Go

Q:

Pick's disease is a neurodegenerative disease with symptoms including impaired thinking and speech abilities as well as loss of other social abilities. Pick's disease most likely affects which of the following regions of the brain?

A

Pons

B

Medulla

C

Cerebellum

D

Cerebral cortex

Tags: Nervous System |

48 Go

Q:

An action potential at one Node of Ranvier stimulates depolarization at its subsequent node by which of the following mechanisms?

A

vesicular transport of ions along the myelin sheath

B

electron flow through the myelin sheath

C

diffusion of ions through the cytoplasm

D

exocytosis of neurotransmitter which diffuses to the subsequent node

Tags: Nervous System |

49 Go

Q:

Stimulation of photoreceptor cells in the retina by light causes a hyperpolarization of the cell. This should have which of the following effects?

A

Decrease in action potential frequency.

B

Increase in action potential frequency.

C

Decrease in length of the action potential.

D

Increase in length of the action potential.

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

50 Go

Q:

Rods are more sensitive than cones in the eyes. This contributes to which of the following phenomena?

A

the inability to focus in low light

B

the inability to distinguish colors in low light

C

macular degeneration in old age

D

cataracts in old age

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

51 Go

Q:

An impaired cerebral cortex is likely to produce which of the following symptoms?

A

extreme mood swings

B

impaired sex drive

C

impaired ability to balance

D

impaired ability to think abstractly

Tags: Nervous System |

52 Go

Q:

The amount of pain experienced by someone depends upon other circumstances such as focusing on something else or hormones. This concept is related to:

A

The gate-control theory of pain

B

Weber’s Law

C

Signal detection theory

D

Bottom-up/Top-down processing

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

53 Go

Q:

The area of the brain through which conscious and unconscious sensory signals travel is known as the:

A

Diencephalon

B

Brain stem

C

Cerebellum

D

Cerebrum

Tags: Nervous System |

54 Go

Q:

Prion diseases are the result of misfolded proteins produced from normal proteins. As the proteins become misfolded, they induce normal proteins to become misfolded as well. This results in an exponential increase in misfolded proteins. This is an example of which of the following?

A

feedback inhibition

B

positive feedback loop

C

induced-fit hypothesis

D

lock-and-key hypothesis

Tags: Nervous System |

55 Go

Q:

Which of the following innervate voluntary muscles in the arms?

A

parasympathetic neurons

B

sympathetic neurons

C

somatic neurons

D

ganglionic neurons

Tags: Nervous System |

56 Go

Q:

When a neuron fires, the action potential involves:

A

Movement of ions across the cell membrane.

B

Movement of protein across cell membrane.

C

Production of complex sugars.

D

Metabolism of fatty amino acids.

Tags: Nervous System |

57 Go

Q:

Which of the following types of visual search primarily consists of parallel processing?

A

Feature Search

B

Pre-Attentive Search

C

Focused Attention Search

D

Conjunctive Search

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

58 Go

Q:

Calcium ions help to stabilize sodium channels in neurons, functionally having a hyperpolarizing effect. Which of the following symptoms would be expected in hypocalcemia?

A

More prolific calcification of various body calcified structures.

B

Decreased levels of parathyroid hormone release as a response to the hypocalcemia.

C

Frequent spontaneous depolarization resulting in muscle tetany.

D

Inability of the heart to contract.

Tags: Nervous System |

59 Go

Q:

6 months ago, on his 21st birthday Bill was in a motorcycle accident that caused severe retrograde amnesia. Once Bill's memories begin to return to him, which of the following is he most likely to be able to recall first?

A

What he was doing the week before his accident

B

What he was doing the week after his accident

C

What he was doing on his 20th birthday

D

What he was doing last week

Tags: Nervous System | Making Sense of the Environment |

60 Go

Q:

Arrector pili muscles are small smooth muscles attached to hair follicles that raise the hairs under conditions of stress or cold. Which of the following statements is true regarding arrector pili muscles?

A

Arrector pili muscles are under the control of the somatic nervous system.

B

Contraction of the arrector pili muscles is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.

C

Arrector pili muscles cells are separated by Z disks.

D

Arrector pili muscles are under conscious control.

Tags: Nervous System | Skin |

61 Go

Q:

Lucy is 100 years old and having trouble with both her short and long-term memory. She has a hard time remembering things that happened long ago and also has difficulty remembering what she did the day before. Which part of Lucy's brain is likely compromised?

A

Hippocampus

B

Thalamus

C

Spinal cord

D

Cortex

Tags: Nervous System |

62 Go

Q:

A mutation is discovered which results in the myelin sheath overgrowing and covering all the space along the axon where there would normally be Nodes of Ranvier. Which of the following would be expected of such a neuron?

A

close-to-normal functioning as Nodes of Ranvier are not an essential component of signal propagation down an axon

B

repeated spontaneous depolarization and signal transmission down the axon

C

inability to be stimulated by an action potential

D

inability to propagate an action potential down the axon

Tags: Nervous System |

63 Go

Q:

Dennis was injured in an accident and can no longer walk or feel anything below his waist. Which part of his central nervous system was likely damaged?

A

Hippocampus

B

Thalamus

C

Spinal cord

D

Cortex

Tags: Nervous System |

64 Go

Q:

The amygdala is responsible for creating long-term memory association with highly emotional events, such as fear conditioning. The amygdala most likely activates which of the following?

A

parasympathetic nervous system

B

sympathetic nervous system

C

somatic nervous system

D

enteric nervous system

Tags: Nervous System |

65 Go

Q:

An elderly gentleman has a stroke which damages a large part of his brainstem. Which of the following would not be an expected symptom for this individual?

A

Weakness of the left arm

B

Absence of the knee-jerk reflex

C

Tingling of the right leg

D

Drastic loss of vision

Tags: Nervous System |

66 Go

Q:

Local anesthetics function as membrane-stabilizers in neurons to reversibly block depolarization. Based on this information, such compounds do which of the following?

A

Bind to allosteric sites on sodium voltage-gated channels

B

Enhance the activity of the sodium-potassium pump

C

Prevent the influx of sodium ions

D

Stimulate the opening of sodium voltage-gated channels

Tags: Nervous System |

67 Go

Q:

Regarding neural communication, which statements are TRUE?

I. The dendrites of a neuron receive messages from other neurons.
II. The action potential starts when potassium ions enter the axon.
III. Neural communication involves an electrochemical process.
IV. The dendrites of the sending neuron secrete neurotransmitters into the synapse.

A

I and III only

B

I, II, and III only

C

II and IV only

D

I, II, III, and IV

Tags: Nervous System |

68 Go

Q:

The frontal lobe is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT:

A

vision

B

voluntary movement

C

goal-directed behavior

D

attention

Tags: Nervous System |

69 Go

Q:

The frontal lobe is responsible for major functions and yet it is the last part of the brain to fully develop. Theorists believe that the frontal lobe does not finish developing until the age of 21. What are the major functions of the frontal lobe?

I. Planning
II. Judgment
III. Impulse Control

A

I and II only

B

II and III only

C

I only

D

I, II, and III

Tags: Nervous System |

70 Go

Q:

Arrange the events below in the proper sequence from beginning to end of neurotransmission.

1) Neurotransmitter vesicles fuse with the membrane
2) Neurotransmitter vesicles are released within the pre-synaptic cell
3) Neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft
4) Voltage gated calcium channels are activated
5) Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the dendrite of the post-synaptic cell

A

2-1-4-3-5

B

1-2-3-4-5

C

4-2-1-3-5

D

2-1-3-5-4

Tags: Nervous System |

71 Go

Q:

Despite being innervated by the autonomic nervous system, the diaphragm can be consciously controlled by the somatic nervous system. Based on this information, the diaphragm is composed of which type of muscle?

A

skeletal

B

smooth

C

cardiac

D

bipolar

Tags: Nervous System | Musculoskeletal System |

72 Go

Q:

A mutation in neurons is such that it prevents myelin from being formed in the peripheral nervous system along its axons. It is likely that

A

these axons have fewer sodium-potassium channels than regular neurons

B

this individual has decreased quantity of oligodendrocytes

C

the axons have increased conduction velocity

D

the axons induce identical amplitude action potentials as normal neurons

Tags: Nervous System |

73 Go

Q:

Which of the following behaviors characterizes situations where damage to Broca's area is apparent?

A

A professor speaks too slowly and articulates words poorly.

B

A stroke victim has difficulty with language comprehension.

C

A soldier injured in battle demonstrates lowered impulse control.

D

A skier, after taking a fall, complains of short-term memory loss.

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

74 Go

Q:

An individual unfortunately finds themselves in a severe motor vehicle accident. Subsequently, they have immense difficulty with their declarative memory. Which of the following regions of the brain may have been affected?

A

occipital lobe

B

frontal lobe

C

temporal and parietal lobe

D

temporal lobe

Tags: Nervous System | Making Sense of the Environment |

75 Go

Q:

An individual is diagnosed as having a defect in their organ of Corti. Which of the following impacts would be expected?

A

Inability to balance

B

Hearing loss

C

Vertigo (or the perception of constant spinning)

D

Poor color vision but appropriate night vision

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

76 Go

Q:

Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to currently have a deficiency of serotonin in the brain's reward pathway?

A

Anxious individuals who have been in inpatient treatment for 3 months

B

Obese individuals who have exercised regularly for 4 months

C

Phobic individuals starting a regime of cognitive-behavioral therapy

D

Individuals with a history of depression who quit heroin completely

Tags: Nervous System | Psychological Disorders |

77 Go

Q:

Which of the following correctly displays the flow of ions in a neuron during different phases of an action potential?

A

Sodium leaves the cell during depolarization

B

Potassium enters the cell during depolarization

C

Potassium leaves the cell during repolarization

D

Sodium leaves the cell during repolarization

Tags: Nervous System |

78 Go

Q:

A patient presents to the hospital with changes in speech pattern. Her speech is non-fluent and labored and difficult to comprehend. Damage to which of the following regions of the brain could explain this behavior?

A

Occipital Lobe

B

Broca's area

C

Wernicke's area

D

Medulla and Pons

Tags: Nervous System | Making Sense of the Environment |

79 Go

Q:

Which of the following brain regions is most influenced by alcohol consumption, causing a loss of balance and coordination?

A

Cerebellum

B

Occipital Lobe

C

Temporal Lobe

D

Cerebrum

Tags: Nervous System |

80 Go

Q:

Which of the following correctly states the neurotransmitter changes found in the central nervous system in Parkinson's disease?

A

decreased dopamine

B

increased dopamine

C

increased acetylcholine

D

decreased acetylcholine

Tags: Nervous System | Psychological Disorders |

81 Go

Q:

The cells in the eye which detect the quantity, but not the color of light are called:

A

Rod cells.

B

Cone cells.

C

Leydig cells.

D

Mesenchymal cells.

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

82 Go

Q:

An individual born with a defect in autonomic nervous system control of breathing would have a deformity in the:

A

forebrain.

B

hindbrain.

C

midbrain.

D

semibrain.

Tags: Nervous System |

83 Go

Q:

lf ATP synthesis was inhibited in the nervous system of an animal, which of the following best describes the major effect on neural function?

A

The cell could not generate an action potential

B

The cell could not propagate action potentials throughout its membrane

C

The cell could not open voltage-gated channels

D

The cell could not maintain its resting potential

Tags: Nervous System | Membrane Transport and Signalling |

84 Go

Q:

Which of the following correctly describes the location of the receptors where sound waves are transduced into neural messages?

A

Pinna

B

The ossicles

C

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup

D

Organ of Corti

Tags: Sensory Processing | Nervous System |

85 Go

Q:

Which of the following correctly describes where in the eye light is transduced into neural impulses?

A

The lens and pupil

B

The iris

C

The rods and the cones

D

The cornea

Tags: Sensory Processing | Nervous System |

86 Go

Q:

Which of the following is responsible for controlling the amount of light entering the eye?

A

Lens

B

Pupil

C

Fovea

D

Iris

Tags: Sensory Processing | Nervous System |

87 Go

Q:

Compared to the concentration of cations outside a nerve cell, the concentration of cations inside a nerve cell is different. Which of the following processes best explains this difference?

A

Simple diffusion across the membrane

B

Osmosis of water

C

Membrane contransporters

D

Sodium-potassium pumps

Tags: Nervous System | Enzyme Structure and Function |

88 Go

Q:

Which of the following best explains how differences in pitch are detected by the auditory system?

A

Perceived pitch depends on fluid movement within the horizontal semicircular canal.

B

Perceived pitch depends on vibrations of the tympanic membrane in one of the ossicles.

C

Perceived pitch depends on vibrations of the tympanic membrane in all three of the ossicles.

D

Perceived pitch depends on the region of the basilar membrane that vibrates.

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

89 Go

Q:

Which of the following brain stem areas is most important in controlling breathing?

A

Hippocampus

B

Limbic system

C

Cerebellum

D

Medulla

Tags: Nervous System | Respiratory System |

90 Go

Q:

Ryan is sitting on a park bench and watches a car drive off away from him. While his retinal image of the car gets smaller, he does not perceive the car to be shrinking. This is an example of:

A

Retinal disparity

B

Binocular disparity

C

Shape constancy

D

Size constancy

Tags: Sensory Processing | Making Sense of the Environment | Nervous System |

91 Go

Q:

Which of the following is true regarding the electrical impulses in the heart?

A

The atrioventricular (AV) node initiates the heartbeat.

B

Purkinje cells in the ventricles control the heart rate.

C

The sinoatrial (SA) node is located in the left atrium of the heart.

D

By stimulating the vagus nerve, the parasympathetic nervous system can decrease the rate at which electrical impulses are generated.

Tags: Circulatory System | Nervous System |

92 Go

Q:

During a heart transplant, the Vagus nerve is severed, eliminating parasympathetic control. Assuming nerve regrowth does not occur, what impact would Vagus nerve severance have on the heart?

A

Adrenaline would be unable to increase the heart rate.

B

The heart would be unable to beat without an artificial electrical stimulus.

C

In a transplant patient at rest, the heart would beat faster than it would in a non-transplant patient at rest.

D

The heart would have difficulty properly timing atrial and ventricular contractions.

Tags: Nervous System | Circulatory System |

93 Go

Q:

Which of the following is true as the membrane potential of a neuron crosses from negative to positive during depolarization in action potential?

A

Sodium reverses its direction and begins to flow out of the cell.

B

Sodium continues to flow into the cell until the voltage has reached a certain positive threshold.

C

Potassium begins to flow out of the cell.

D

The sodium-potassium pump ceases to function until the neuron has repolarized.

Tags: Nervous System |

94 Go

Q:

Damage to which of the following regions of the brain would have the biggest impact on vital bodily functions?

A

medulla

B

thalamus

C

corpus callosum

D

cerebral cortex

Tags: Nervous System |

95 Go

Q:

Which of the following is responsible for the initial depolarization of a neuron?

A

Opening of voltage-gated sodium channels

B

Closing of voltage-gated sodium channels

C

Opening of voltage-gated potassium channels

D

Closing of voltage-gated potassium channels

Tags: Nervous System |

96 Go

Q:

The region of the brain most responsible for respiration is the:

A

pons.

B

cerebellum.

C

thalamus.

D

hypothalamus.

Tags: Nervous System |

97 Go

Q:

An inhibitor of adrenergic neurotransmitters would be expected to act at which of the following areas?

A

At a sympathetic neuromuscular junction.

B

At the presynaptic region of a parasympathetic synapse.

C

At the postsynaptic region of a somatic synapse.

D

At the preganglionic junction of a sympathetic neuron.

Tags: Nervous System |

98 Go

Q:

The somatosensory cortex is contained within the:

A

frontal lobe.

B

parietal lobe.

C

temporal lobe.

D

occipital lobe.

Tags: Nervous System |

99 Go

Q:

A patient has a stroke in the area of the amygdala. This patient may be expected to have deficits with:

A

walking heel-to-toe in a straight line.

B

certain sensory perceptions.

C

producing coherent speech.

D

emoting.

Tags: Nervous System |

100 Go

Q:

Which of the following correctly lists the order of the opening and closing of sodium/potassium channels in neurons?

A

sodium channels open, potassium channels open, potassium channels close, sodium channels close

B

sodium channels open, potassium channels open, sodium channels close, potassium channels close

C

sodium channels close, potassium channels close, sodium channels open, potassium channels open

D

potassium channels close, sodium channels close, sodium channels open, potassium channels open

Tags: Nervous System |

101 Go

Q:

The nodes of ranvier are responsible for:

A

increasing the number of sodium channels in an axon.

B

increasing the speed of electric conduction down an axon.

C

regenerating an action potential as it travels down the axon.

D

stabilizing electric impulses within an axon.

Tags: Nervous System |

102 Go

Q:

The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT:

A

digestion.

B

dilation of the pupils.

C

decreasing blood pressure.

D

slowing the heart rate.

Tags: Nervous System |

103 Go

Q:

Which of the following is a plausible membrane potential for a neuron towards the end of repolarization?

A

-150 mV

B

-50 mV

C

0 mV

D

35 mV

Tags: Nervous System |

104 Go

Q:

An individual presents to their doctor given alternations in their sleep-wake cycle. They feel that tired around 5PM every evening and sleep until 2AM, feeling entirely rested. This individual may have a defect in their:

A

parallel processing centers.

B

hypothalamus.

C

temporal lobe.

D

rods and cone cells of the eye.

Tags: Nervous System |

105 Go

Q:

The prefrontal cortex is most responsible for:

A

thermoregulation.

B

parasympathetic physiologic changes.

C

formation of language.

D

decision making.

Tags: Nervous System |

106 Go

Q:

Which of the following cell types in the central nervous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production?

A

ependymal cells

B

schwann cells

C

astrocytes

D

oligodendrocytes

Tags: Nervous System |

107 Go

Q:

Which of the following is true regarding memory formation and retrieval?

A

Neural plasticity does not occur in adulthood.

B

Short term memory relies upon semantic networks whereas long term memory does not.

C

The hippocampus is heavily involved in consolidation of memories.

D

Retrieval cues are critical in adolescent memory recall however adults utilize alternate methods for memory recall.

Tags: Nervous System |

108 Go

Q:

Which of the following is NOT a function of the parasympathetic nervous system?

A

pupillary constriction

B

bladder contraction

C

slows heart rate

D

decreasing peristalsis

Tags: Nervous System |

109 Go

Q:

Passive diffusion across the membrane of axons involves ion flow in which directions?

A

Sodium ions in and potassium ions out.

B

Sodium and potassium ions in.

C

Sodium and potassium ions out.

D

Sodium ions out and potassium ions in.

Tags: Nervous System |

110 Go

Q:

The primary motor cortex is found in the:

A

frontal lobe.

B

temporal lobe.

C

parietal lobe.

D

occipital lobe.

Tags: Nervous System |

111 Go

Q:

Which of the following is NOT a component of the peripheral nervous system?

A

somatic nervous system

B

autonomic nervous system

C

parasympathetic nervous system

D

spinal cord

Tags: Nervous System |

112 Go

Q:

A brain biopsy from a cadaver is found to have a significant number of amyloid plaques. This individual may be expected to have had:

A

schizophrenia.

B

depression.

C

Alzheimer's disease.

D

multiple sclerosis.

Tags: Nervous System |

113 Go

Q:

A patient's neurologic function is evaluated and it is found that the individual has a very brisk patellar (knee) reflex upon hitting the knee with a padded hammer. Which of the following is true regarding this reflex?

A

The reflex does not involve the spinal cord.

B

Higher level processing is not necessary for the reflex to occur.

C

The reflex does not involve the central nervous system.

D

A single peripheral nerve controls the reflex without involvement from other nerves.

Tags: Nervous System |

114 Go

Q:

The amygdala is primarily responsible for:

A

language production.

B

language recognition.

C

recognition of faces.

D

emotional integration.

Tags: Nervous System |

115 Go

Q:

Which of the following holds true regarding action potentials?

A

Irrespective of the magnitude of the stimulus, the magnitude of the action potential remains constant.

B

Axons are responsible for conduction of action potentials towards the nerve cell body.

C

Action potentials only occur in nervous cells in the human body.

D

An action potential is typically generated before the membrane depolarizes to the threshold potential.

Tags: Nervous System |

116 Go

Q:

Schwann cells:

A

produce myelin in the central nervous system.

B

are similar to neurons in that they have axonal and dendritic components.

C

are a subset of astrocytes.

D

exist in the peripheral nervous system.

Tags: Nervous System |

117 Go

Q:

The hindbrain includes which of the following structures?

A

thalamus

B

hypothalamus

C

cerebral aqueduct

D

pons

Tags: Nervous System | Sensory Processing |

118 Go

Q:

A set of adult neurons are plated on cell culture and studied under varying conditions in the laboratory. Long-term potentiation is seen over time. This experiment may suggest:

A

the difficulty of growing neurons in cell culture conditions.

B

the notion of synaptic plasticity in children.

C

the presence of glial and other supportive cells in the cell culture.

D

synaptic strength as a nonstatic variable.

Tags: Sensory Processing | Nervous System |

119 Go

Q:

In a laboratory, a plate of neurons is constructed composed with half of the neurons having a threshold potential of -50 mV and the other half with a threshold potential of -30 mV. Both types of neurons have a resting potential of -70 mV. 50 mV of voltage are applied uniformly across these plated neurons. Which of the following would be expected?

A

0% of the neurons would fire

B

50% of the neurons would fire

C

100% of the neurons would fire

D

the percentage of neurons that would fire cannot be determined

Tags: Nervous System |

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