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There are 53 questions tagged under Musculoskeletal System.

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1 Go

Q:

A sample of muscle tissue is noted to take significantly longer than regular muscle tissue when it comes to spreading an action potential from muscle cell to muscle cell. After investigation, biologists deduce that the problem with the tissue is structural, rather than chemical, and is likely related to a problem with the cellular membranes. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this problem?

A

There is an irregularity with the size or existence of gap junctions.

B

There is a structural error in the desmosomes of the cell, causing excessive membrane elasticity.

C

There is an excess of tight junctions, preventing the action potential from propagating.

D

There is a mutation in the gene for the membrane receptors which assist in propagating action potentials.

Tags: Eukaryotic Cells | Musculoskeletal System |

2 Go

Q:

An individual has a high blood-calcium concentration. Which of the following would result in such a condition?

A

Excessive osteoclast activity

B

Excessive osteoblast activity

C

Improper formation of lacunae

D

A mutation in osteocytes preventing mitosis.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

3 Go

Q:

Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets, a symptom of which is the bowing of the femurs outward such that the femurs become curved. X-rays of such femurs reveal less bone opacity than those of normal, non-deficient femurs. Which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion from the information given?

A

Vitamin D deficiency causes dental problems

B

Vitamin D deficiency more noticeably affects adults than children

C

Femurs bowed from Vitamin D deficiency can be straightened by reintroducing Vitamin D into the diet

D

Vitamin D deficiency disrupts the pathway by which Calcium is incorporated into the bones

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

4 Go

Q:

Which of the following regions of a skeletal muscle fiber does not change length upon contraction?

A

H zone

B

M line

C

A band

D

None of the above

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

5 Go

Q:

The walls of the digestive tract, blood vessels and urinary bladder are composed of what type of muscle?

A

striated, voluntary

B

non-striated, involuntary

C

non-striated, voluntary

D

striated, involuntary

Tags: Circulatory System | Digestive System | Renal System | Musculoskeletal System |

6 Go

Q:

All of the following are true except:

A

Tendons connect muscle to muscle

B

Ligaments connect bone to bone

C

The axial skeleton includes the vertebrae and cranium

D

The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the arms and legs

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

7 Go

Q:

Which of the following describes an adipocyte?

A

A female germ cell

B

A fat cell

C

A cartilage cell

D

A giant cell in the bone marrow

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

8 Go

Q:

Muscle cells rely on changes in membrane potential in order to initiate contraction. Which of the following is incorrect regarding muscle cells and their membrane potential dynamics?

A

Depolarization of the muscle membrane results in an influx of calcium

B

Contraction is induced directly by calcium influx from outside the cell as well as efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

C

Efflux of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum initiates hyperpolarization of the cell, resulting in the contraction of the cell

D

Muscle contraction is an active process

Tags: Membrane Transport and Signalling | Musculoskeletal System |

9 Go

Q:

Osteoclasts are frequently found within bone tissue and serve a very important role in maintenance of calcium homeostasis. These cells live within pits called Howship's Lacunae, in which they perform their function. Which of the following would one expect to find in such a pit?

A

microtubules

B

a proteolytic environment

C

bacterial cells

D

osteons of bone

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

10 Go

Q:

Arrector pili muscles are smooth muscles which associate with the dermal region of hair follicles in mammals. The contraction of these muscles results in hairs to stand on end. This can be especially seen in house cats when they are distressed or scared. Which of the following is false regarding these muscles?

A

There is little to no vasculature in the region these muscles are found

B

Innervation of the muscles is by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system

C

These muscles lack striations

D

Contraction of these muscles is due to increases in intracellular calcium concentration

Tags: Musculoskeletal System | Skin |

11 Go

Q:

Ossification is the process of laying down new bone mass and occurs during development until the age of 25. The process of ossification is primarily performed by:

A

osteoclasts

B

osteoblasts

C

osteocytes

D

osteoliths

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

12 Go

Q:

Which of the following correctly depicts the H zone in a sarcomere?

A

It is a region in which the Z line intersects with thin filaments

B

It is composed entirely of thin filaments

C

It is composed of a mix of thin and thick filaments

D

It intersects with the A band

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

13 Go

Q:

Which of the following cellular components is sufficient to identify muscle cell from a neuron?

A

Na+/K+ pumps

B

Sharp changes in membrane potentials

C

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

D

None of the above

Tags: Nervous System | Musculoskeletal System |

14 Go

Q:

A chemotherapeutic that functions by inhibiting rapid cell division is applied to a body. Which of the following tissues would be most greatly affected?

A

the epithelium of the digestive tract

B

the muscle cells of the heart

C

neurons in the brain

D

osteoblasts in the bone

Tags: Nervous System | Circulatory System | Digestive System | Musculoskeletal System |

15 Go

Q:

Muscle fibers come in two generic types: fast twitch and slow twitch. Fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly as well - they rely mainly on glycolytic mechanisms for energy production. Slow twitch muscle relies upon aerobic activity for energy. Which of the following metabolytes would not be expected to be produced in fast twitch muscle metabolism?

A

Pyruvate

B

ADP

C

CO2

D

1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

Tags: Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, PPP | Musculoskeletal System |

16 Go

Q:

Muscles with non-striated tissue are the primary muscle found in which of the following?

A

the skeletal framework

B

intestines and blood vessel lining

C

the heart

D

the diaphragm

Tags: Circulatory System | Digestive System | Musculoskeletal System |

17 Go

Q:

Which of the following is an example of a motor protein?

A

sodium-potassium pump

B

myosin

C

actin

D

ATP hydrolase

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

18 Go

Q:

The anterolateral ligament is used as a rotational stabilizer in the knee. As a ligament, it connects:

A

bone to bone

B

bone to muscle

C

muscle to muscle

D

bone to cartilage

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

19 Go

Q:

Which of the following would be affected by a mutation in the actin protein?

I. Mitosis
II. Muscle contraction
III. Cellular shape

A

II only

B

II and III only

C

I and III only

D

I, II and III

Tags: Cytoskeleton | Musculoskeletal System |

20 Go

Q:

A drug binds to calcium voltage-gated channels in the muscles and forces them to stay open, preventing calcium sequestration in the cytosol. Which of the following effects would be observed in a muscle in the minutes following the drug administration?

A

inability of the muscle to contract

B

rapid contraction and release (twitching) of the muscle

C

there would be no change to the muscle's contraction state

D

tetany of the muscle

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

21 Go

Q:

If an individual were treated with a drug that inhibited the production of actin, which would NOT be directly affected?

A

muscle contraction

B

lymphocyte motility

C

villi and microvilli formation

D

desmosome cell junction

Tags: Cytoskeleton | Musculoskeletal System |

22 Go

Q:

Bone tissue does NOT serve which of the following purposes in the human body?

A

Blood cell production

B

Sound transduction

C

Mineral storage

D

Heavy metal and toxin excretion

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

23 Go

Q:

Which of the following occurs during muscle contractions?

A

The M-line disappears

B

The H and I bands decrease in size

C

The A band decreases in size

D

The Z-discs separate from the actin thin filaments

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

24 Go

Q:

Despite being innervated by the autonomic nervous system, the diaphragm can be consciously controlled by the somatic nervous system. Based on this information, the diaphragm is composed of which type of muscle?

A

skeletal

B

smooth

C

cardiac

D

bipolar

Tags: Nervous System | Musculoskeletal System |

25 Go

Q:

An increase in osteoclast activity in the body would most likely result in

A

increased calcium concentration in the bloodstream

B

increased bone strength

C

reversion of adult bone to growth plates

D

dissolution of cartilage

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

26 Go

Q:

Striations, as are seen in skeletal muscle tissue (as opposed with smooth muscle tissue) signify:

A

aligned thick and thin filaments within muscle tissue.

B

support proteins which hold up the stability of the sarcomere.

C

large regions of muscle which do not have actin filaments within them.

D

homogeneously contracted muscle cells.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

27 Go

Q:

Which of the following is false regarding cartilage tissue?

A

It is acellular

B

It is found in the vertebral column

C

It is a flexible type of connective tissue

D

It is composed of collagen fibers

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

28 Go

Q:

A urine sample from a patient is collected and it is found to contain large amounts of myosin. Which of the following might cause this finding?

A

underlying kidney damage

B

muscle breakdown in the body

C

a disorder with the anterior pituitary

D

damage to the nerves of the bladder wall

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

29 Go

Q:

A neurotransmitter is found that is released to a secondary neuron with the downstream effects of causing muscle contraction. This neurotransmitter is also found to be involved in a negative feedback pathway. On which structure does this neurotransmitter likely act as part of this feedback pathway?

A

Post-synaptic neuron

B

Pre-synaptic neuron

C

Within the synapse

D

Directly on the muscle

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

30 Go

Q:

Which of the following tissues is NOT classified as connective tissue?

A

Blood

B

Bone

C

Cartilage

D

Nervous

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

31 Go

Q:

In skeletal muscle contraction, which of the following provides the most important source of calcium ions?

A

Triphosphate binding to a receptor on the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane.

B

The opening of calcium channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

C

The calcium ATPase in the sarcoplasm.

D

Voltage-gated calcium channels in the muscle fiber plasma membrane.

Tags: Protein Structure and Function | Musculoskeletal System | Membrane Transport and Signalling |

32 Go

Q:

Which of the following is FALSE about the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

A

The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions.

B

The sarcoplasmic reticulum transports calcium ions into the sarcoplasm when the muscle fiber is stimulated.

C

The sarcoplasmic reticulum contributes to the generation of the muscular action potential.

D

The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a specialized type of endoplasmic reticulum.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System | Membrane Transport and Signalling |

33 Go

Q:

Which of the following is present in the I-band of the sarcomere?

I. Actin
II. Myosin
III. H zone

A

I only

B

II only

C

I and III only

D

II and III only

Tags: Protein Structure and Function | Musculoskeletal System |

34 Go

Q:

ATP hydrolysis in skeletal muscle fibers occurs:

A

as the myosin head dissociates from the actin filament.

B

as the myosin head changes conformation.

C

as troponin blocks myosin from binding on actin.

D

as calcium unbinds from troponin.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

35 Go

Q:

The A-band in a sarcomere is equal in length to the:

A

myosin filament.

B

thin filament.

C

actin filament.

D

fully-relaxed sarcomere.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

36 Go

Q:

During resting state of the muscle, which area of the cell has the highest Ca2+ concentrations?

A

mitochondria

B

cytosol

C

sarcoplasmic reticulum

D

nucleus

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

37 Go

Q:

Peristaltic contractions are produced by what type of muscle?

A

smooth

B

cardiac

C

skeletal

D

smooth or skeletal, depending on the tissue

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

38 Go

Q:

Which of the following is a false statement?

A

Muscle connects bone to bone.

B

Tendon connects muscle to muscle.

C

Ligaments connects bone to bone.

D

Muscles are responsible for moving the bones of the body.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

39 Go

Q:

Which of the following organs serves as a major calcium reservoir in the body?

A

kidneys

B

subcutaneous connective tissue

C

intestines

D

bones

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

40 Go

Q:

The epiphyseal plate is found:

A

within the metaphysis.

B

within the diaphysis.

C

between the diaphysis and metaphysis.

D

between the diaphysis and osteophysis.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

41 Go

Q:

Osteocytes reside within the:

A

lacunae.

B

Haversian canals.

C

osteoblasts.

D

canaliculae.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

42 Go

Q:

The structure that connects bones to bones is referred to as a:

A

tendon.

B

ligament.

C

diaphysis.

D

joint.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

43 Go

Q:

Intercalated discs are most typically seen in:

A

cardiac muscle.

B

skeletal muscle.

C

smooth muscle.

D

ocular muscle.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

44 Go

Q:

Which of the following is accurate regarding bone?

A

osteoblasts are responsible for breaking down bone

B

vitamin D decreases the resorption of bone

C

parathyroid hormone decrease resorption of bone

D

calcitonin increases bone formation

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

45 Go

Q:

Joints that contain a fluid barrier between bones are typically called:

A

cartilaginous joints.

B

synovial joints.

C

fibrous joints.

D

corpuscular joints.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

46 Go

Q:

Thick filaments within sarcomeres are composed of:

A

actin.

B

titin.

C

myosin.

D

microfilaments.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

47 Go

Q:

One would expect to find involuntary, non-striated muscle in:

A

muscles of the quadriceps.

B

cardiac tissue.

C

the tongue.

D

the small intestine.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

48 Go

Q:

Which of the following regions of the sarcomere function as anchoring regions for actin filaments?

A

I-band

B

Z-line

C

A-band

D

H-zone

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

49 Go

Q:

Tendons are important in connecting:

A

bone to muscle.

B

bone to bone.

C

muscle to cartilage.

D

bone to cartilage.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

50 Go

Q:

The diaphysis refers to the:

A

connective tissue connecting bone to tendon.

B

connective tissue connecting bone to ligament.

C

shaft of the bone.

D

marrow of the bone.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

51 Go

Q:

Bisphosphonates are a class of medications used in osteoporosis and decrease bone breakdown. Which cells/structures would this medication class be expected to act upon?

A

osteoclasts

B

osteoblasts

C

Haversian canals

D

bone marrow

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

52 Go

Q:

Which of the following structures in the ear are least likely to contain osteocytes?

A

malleus

B

stapedius

C

stapes

D

incus

Tags: Sensory Processing | Musculoskeletal System |

53 Go

Q:

The H-zone as part of sarcomeres:

A

contains only thick filaments.

B

contains only thin filaments.

C

is the location of the z-line.

D

is synonymous with the I-band.

Tags: Musculoskeletal System |

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