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There are 69 questions tagged under Digestive System.

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1 Go

Q:

Which of the following is technically considered to be 'outside' the body?

A

Trichina worm larvae in skeletal muscle tissue

B

Loa loa filariasis worms in subcutaneous tissue

C

A tapeworm in the digestive tract.

D

Naegleria fowleri amoeba in the central nervous system

Tags: Digestive System |

2 Go

Q:

Which of the following is the primary purpose of bile salts?

A

cholesterol degradation

B

buffering the intestines for fat metabolism

C

synthesis into fats

D

emulsification of fats

Tags: Digestive System |

3 Go

Q:

Dr. Frankenstein notices that his creation has an unusual genetic disorder which results in a change in one amino acid residue on pepsin. This mutated pepsin has optimal activity at a pH of 4. What effect is expected on the creation?

A

Neurons will decrease firing speed

B

There will be a noticeable increase of oxygen in tissue

C

Digestion will be severely suppressed

D

No muscle contraction due to an absence in the release of Ca2+.

Tags: Control of Enzyme Activity | Digestive System |

4 Go

Q:

A certain bacterial infection results in the loss of the ability to produce bile salts. What effect would such an infection have on the body?

A

Slower peristaltic activity in the digestive tract

B

Relative loss of ability to digest fats

C

Decreased oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin

D

Increased cholesterol production

Tags: Digestive System |

5 Go

Q:

The duodenum is where most chemical digestion takes place in the intestines. Which of the following statements would you expect to be true about the duodenum?

A

The duodenum has a strong presence of digestive enzymes

B

The duodenum lacks arterial supply

C

The duodenum is a vestigial apparatus

D

The duodenum is highly susceptible to infection

Tags: Digestive System |

6 Go

Q:

In humans, where does most of the chemical digestion of food occur?

A

Mouth

B

Stomach

C

Ileum

D

Duodenum

Tags: Digestive System |

7 Go

Q:

Why is the pancreas considered both an exocrine and an endocrine gland?

A

Exocrine because it secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream; endocrine because it secretes its products into ducts

B

Endocrine because it secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream; exocrine because it secretes its products into ducts

C

Exocrine because it receives chemical messengers from the bloodstream; endocrine because it receives chemical messengers from ducts

D

Endocrine because it receives chemical messengers from the bloodstream; exocrine because it receives chemical messengers from ducts

Tags: Endocrine System | Digestive System |

8 Go

Q:

Peptic ulcers are erosions of gastrointestinal mucosa. The cell type eroded is best described as

A

neuronal

B

hepatic

C

epithelial

D

peritoneal

Tags: Digestive System |

9 Go

Q:

Peristalsis in the digestive tract is performed primarily by

A

smooth muscle

B

skeletal muscle

C

cardiac muscle

D

none of these

Tags: Digestive System |

10 Go

Q:

Cholesterol is a principle component in the production of

A

Polar bodies

B

Bile acids

C

Glycogen stores

D

Lipid bilayers

Tags: Digestive System |

11 Go

Q:

Bile salts are stored in the

A

Liver

B

Kidneys

C

Duodenum of the small intestine

D

Gallbladder

Tags: Digestive System |

12 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not a function of cholesterol?

A

Precursor for bile salts

B

Helps to maintain cell fluidity

C

A cofactor in the beta oxidation of fatty acids

D

Precursor for steroid hormones

Tags: Membrane Transport and Signalling | Endocrine System | Digestive System |

13 Go

Q:

The liver is NOT responsible for which of the following?

A

Producing gastrin, which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion in the stomach.

B

Synthesis of proteins involved in coagulation of blood.

C

Regulation of blood glucose homeostasis.

D

Removal of bile pigment from haemoglobin breakdown.

Tags: Hormonal Regulation | Digestive System |

14 Go

Q:

The walls of the digestive tract, blood vessels and urinary bladder are composed of what type of muscle?

A

striated, voluntary

B

non-striated, involuntary

C

non-striated, voluntary

D

striated, involuntary

Tags: Circulatory System | Digestive System | Renal System | Musculoskeletal System |

15 Go

Q:

Which of the following transports glucose from the intestines to the liver?

A

Hepatic portal

B

Hepatic vein

C

Hepatic artery

D

Superior mesenteric artery

Tags: Digestive System |

16 Go

Q:

Symptoms of infection with bacterium X include diarrhea. Bacterium X is intracellular and is known to secrete a toxin which inhibits the transfer of sodium ions from the gut into the bloodstream. Why would the inhibition of sodium transfer cause diarrhea?

A

Sodium is toxic to the gut and causes diarrhea.

B

The inability to remove sodium (and therefore salt) from the gut causes water to move into the gut and out of the body as diarrhea.

C

Sodium transfer across the epithelium generates ATP which is necessary for the removal of water from the gut and prevention of diarrhea.

D

The removal of sodium (and therefore salt) from the gut causes the inability to absorb vitamins. This poor nutrition results in diarrhea.

Tags: Digestive System |

17 Go

Q:

Rabbits digest most of their food in their hindgut - their large intestine and cecum. Part of the digested material is passed as feces while part is passed as a nutritious cecotrope which is then consumed once more. Assuming the rabbit digestive system is otherwise like a human digestive system, which of the following is most likely the reason for the consumption of the cecotrope?

A

rabbits have poor vision and are unable to distinguish food from the cecotrope

B

the digested contents of the cecotrope must be mixed with food to aid digestion in the stomach

C

the cecotrope needs a second pass through the digestive system for the nutrients to be properly absorbed in the hindgut

D

most nutrient absorption happens in the small intestine so the digested cecotrope must be re-ingested so it will pass through the small intestine for nutrient absorption

Tags: Digestive System |

18 Go

Q:

The pancreas is responsible for the release of a significant amount of digestive enzymes which assist in the absorption of nutrients from food. The pancreas often stores these enzymes in their nonactive, zymogen form. When the enzymes are pumped into the small intestine, they can be activated through cleaving enzymes. Which of the following correctly explains why these enzymes would be released in a zymogenic form?

A

To prevent pancreatic damage

B

To ensure that activation occurs prior to food entry into the duodenum

C

To prevent the retrograde flow of enzymes from the small intestine to the pancreas

D

To increase the catalytic rate of the digestive enzymes

Tags: Control of Enzyme Activity | Digestive System |

19 Go

Q:

The night before her MCAT examination, Jayme decides to eat a large meal. Which of the following is not true regarding the digestive processes immediately following her meal?

A

Insulin levels will increase and glucagon levels will decrease

B

Pancreatic enzymes in the stomach assist with digestion of various nutrients

C

Peristalsis will occur to propel the food forward

D

Bile salts will act to emulsify fats in the food

Tags: Digestive System |

20 Go

Q:

Beta cells are cells in the pancreas which release insulin after eating a meal. Which of the following could be seen intracellularly in such cells?

A

Bile salt transporters localized to the nucleus

B

Peptidoglycan in the cellular membrane

C

High concentrations of actin filaments

D

A relatively large amount of rough ER

Tags: Hormonal Regulation | Eukaryotic Cells | Digestive System |

21 Go

Q:

The colon of the gastrointestinal system houses large amounts of enteric (or intestinal) bacteria. These bacteria serve a protective role in the body through amplification of the immune system and preventing foreign bacteria from populating the region. Given the environment within the colon, which of the following would not be a common feature seen in the bacteria?

A

Production of lactate

B

Glycolytic enzymes

C

Inactive ETC proteins in facultative anaerobes

D

All of the above would be found

Tags: Prokaryotes | Digestive System |

22 Go

Q:

A patient is found to have an extremely atrophied pancreas. Which of the following processes would not be affected?

A

Carbohydrate Digestion

B

Protein Digestion

C

Fat Digestion

D

All of the above would be affected

Tags: Digestive System |

23 Go

Q:

A chemotherapeutic that functions by inhibiting rapid cell division is applied to a body. Which of the following tissues would be most greatly affected?

A

the epithelium of the digestive tract

B

the muscle cells of the heart

C

neurons in the brain

D

osteoblasts in the bone

Tags: Nervous System | Circulatory System | Digestive System | Musculoskeletal System |

24 Go

Q:

Which of the following begins chemical digestion when mixed with saliva in the mouth?

A

carbohydrate

B

fat

C

protein

D

nucleic acid

Tags: Digestive System |

25 Go

Q:

Some individuals have an inability to produce bile salts which can often present as pain and discomfort. Which of the following activities might cause such a response?

A

vigorous exercise

B

drinking water

C

eating fatty foods

D

urination

Tags: Digestive System |

26 Go

Q:

During temporary periods of high stress, peristalsis in the digestive system is slowed. The slowing of this function is primarily mediated by

A

parasympathetic nervous system.

B

sympathetic nervous system.

C

somatic nervous system.

D

None of the above.

Tags: Nervous System | Digestive System |

27 Go

Q:

A patient has a severe deficit in parietal cells of the stomach. Which of the following may be expected in this patient?

A

Increased ulceration in the stomach.

B

Decreased gastrin production.

C

Decreased pepsinogen production

D

Increased pH of the stomach

Tags: Digestive System |

28 Go

Q:

Bile salts are an important component of fat digestion where they act as emulsifiers. They are produced from

A

saponified fatty acids.

B

steroid compounds.

C

phospholipids.

D

glycoproteins.

Tags: Digestive System |

29 Go

Q:

Which of the following functions would be most impacted in a patient whose gallbladder was removed?

A

Immune response

B

Digestion

C

Urinary function

D

Reproduction

Tags: Digestive System |

30 Go

Q:

Which of the following is(are) functions of the human pancreas?

I. Regulation of blood glucose levels.
II. Production of digestive enzymes.
III. Production of bile for digestion.

A

I only

B

I and II only

C

I and III only

D

II and III only

Tags: Digestive System |

31 Go

Q:

Antinutrients are substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients in the diet. Which of the following are possible mechanisms for antinutrient function?

I. Inhibition of digestive enzymes such as amylases and proteases
II. Precipitation of nutrients
III. Hydrolysis of peptide and glycosidic bonds

A

I only

B

I and II only

C

I and III only

D

II and III only

Tags: Digestive System |

32 Go

Q:

Muscles with non-striated tissue are the primary muscle found in which of the following?

A

the skeletal framework

B

intestines and blood vessel lining

C

the heart

D

the diaphragm

Tags: Circulatory System | Digestive System | Musculoskeletal System |

33 Go

Q:

Damage to the pancreas would not directly affect the production of:

A

amylases

B

trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen

C

lipase

D

pepsin

Tags: Digestive System |

34 Go

Q:

Loss of villi in the small intestine due to infection would likely cause problems with which of the following?

A

stool volume regulation

B

emulsification of fats

C

nutrient absorption

D

production of amylases

Tags: Digestive System |

35 Go

Q:

Acid-tolerant bacteria do not have a survival advantage in the small intestine because

A

acid-tolerant bacteria are abundant in the small intestine.

B

the small intestine produces a special type of acid to which these bacteria are susceptible.

C

the small intestine targets acid-tolerant bacteria in other ways.

D

the small intestine is not particularly acidic.

Tags: Prokaryotes | Digestive System |

36 Go

Q:

An autoimmune disorder which attacks and destroys the villi of the small intestine would have which of the following impacts on digestion?

A

Inefficient peristalsis

B

Inefficient chemical digestion

C

Inhibited ability to regulate water content of the stool

D

Inefficient nutrient absorption

Tags: Digestive System |

37 Go

Q:

Lactose intolerance usually results in fluid movement into the intestines and diarrhea. Individuals who are lactose intolerant are unable to transport the lactose through the membrane of the small intestine, so it accumulates in the lumen if the colon. Which of the following best explains the reason for diarrhea in these individuals?

A

Their digestive tract is mounting an immune response against the lactose, which causes inflammation and fluid release into the lumen.

B

Water transports into the lumen due to the higher osmolarity of the accumulated sugars.

C

Bacteria ultimately metabolize the sugars instead of the individuals, and water is a byproduct of the sugar degradation.

D

The body is attempting to flush the indigestible lactose out, and water accumulation in the colon is the fastest way to accomplish this.

Tags: Digestive System |

38 Go

Q:

In the blood, lipids are often transferred via lipoproteins which are composed primarily of lipids bound to proteins. This helps to emulsify the lipids for transport. In the digestive system, fat emulsification is accomplished by which of the following?

A

lipases

B

bile salts

C

stomach acid

D

phospholipids

Tags: Digestive System |

39 Go

Q:

Blockage of the pancreatic duct would most likely affect which of the following processes?

A

Digestion

B

Blood glucose regulation

C

Fat emulsification

D

Blood cell production

Tags: Digestive System |

40 Go

Q:

Loss of villi in the small intestine due to infection would likely cause problems with which of the following?

A

stool volume regulation

B

emulsification of fats

C

production of amylases

D

nutrient absorption

Tags: Digestive System |

41 Go

Q:

Bile salts are important for solubilizing fats within the small intestine. Which of the following molecules forms the core component of a bile salt?

A

phospholipids

B

cholesterol

C

glycoproteins

D

carbohydrates

Tags: Digestive System |

42 Go

Q:

Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and can occur for a large variety of reasons, including viral infections, alcohol use, and autoimmune diseases. It is a relatively small organ, however its inflammation causes a very large amount of inflammation disproportionate to its size, often with great amounts of fluid loss in the abdomen. Which of the following provides a reasonable rationale for this phenomenon?

A

The liver releases pro-inflammatory molecules which travel to the pancreas and exaccerbate the inflammatory process

B

The gallbladder releases pro-inflammatory molecules which travel to the pancreas and exaccerbate the inflammatory process

C

The pancreas and jejunum are directly connected, causing inflammation of the pancreas resulting in progression through the digestive tract

D

The pancreas contains digestive enzymes which may activate and degrade surrounding tissues

Tags: Digestive System |

43 Go

Q:

Which of the following regions of the GI tract contains the highest pH?

A

Upper portion of the stomach

B

Lower portion of the stomach

C

Initial portion of duodenum (prior to junction with pancreatic duct)

D

Later portion of duodenum (after to junction with pancreatic duct)

Tags: Digestive System |

44 Go

Q:

Which of the following would be found in a gastrointestinal system without the ability to undergo peristalsis?

A

Massive amounts of diarrhea

B

Virtually no colonic flora

C

Increased buildup of GI contents in the rectum

D

Difficulty in swallowing

Tags: Digestive System |

45 Go

Q:

A gallstone is a stone which can be formed in the gallbladder. At times, such stones may pass out from the gallbladder and into the common bile duct. Assuming that this stone can continue to pass through the duct and into the GI system, which of the following structures would the stone likely not likely not touch during its travel?

A

Jejunum

B

Pancreatic duct

C

Pylorus of the stomach

D

Ampulla of vater (connection of the common bile duct to the small intestine)

Tags: Digestive System |

46 Go

Q:

Various energy sources (e.g., fats, proteins) have different locations within the body where they are broken down. Which of the following energy sources is broken down as early as the mouth?

A

Vitamin C

B

Fat

C

Protein

D

Carbohydrate

Tags: Digestive System |

47 Go

Q:

Which of the following organs have a direct connection to the small intestine?

I. pancreas
II. stomach
III. spleen

A

II only

B

I and II only

C

II and III only

D

I, II and III

Tags: Digestive System |

48 Go

Q:

In humans, which of the following does NOT contain bile?

A

Liver

B

Stomach

C

Duodenum

D

Gallbladder

Tags: Lipids | Digestive System |

49 Go

Q:

A drug unexpectedly decreases the number of villi lining the lumen of the small intestine. This would most likely:

A

decrease the amount of bile secreted.

B

decrease the amount of pepsin secreted.

C

increase the likelihood of constipation.

D

decrease nutrient absorption.

Tags: Digestive System |

50 Go

Q:

The mouth contributes to the start of digestion by:

I. providing salivary amylase, which digests proteins.
II. increasing the surface area of food.
III. lubricating chewed food as it passes to the esophagus.

A

I and II only

B

I and III only

C

II and III only

D

I, II, and III

Tags: Digestive System |

51 Go

Q:

Which of the following is true regarding a duodenal ulcer?

A

A duodenal ulcer is a break in the lining of the stomach.

B

A duodenal ulcer would likely cause pain after a meal, not during a meal.

C

Parietal cells within the duodenum are causative for such ulcers.

D

A duodenal ulcer results in bile leaking from the duodenum.

Tags: Digestive System |

52 Go

Q:

Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?

A

production of bile

B

blood cell production

C

storage of vitamins

D

metabolite detoxification

Tags: Digestive System | Endocrine System | Circulatory System |

53 Go

Q:

In addition to producing glucagon and insulin, the pancreas produces:

A

bile

B

digestive enzymes

C

glycogen

D

antidiuretic hormone

Tags: Digestive System |

54 Go

Q:

The purpose of villi in the small intestine is to:

A

Allow the villi to wrap around pieces of food and digest them.

B

Increase the surface area of the small intestine to maximize nutrient absorption.

C

Protect the lining of the small intestine from digestive enzymes.

D

Secrete the majority of digestive enzymes.

Tags: Digestive System |

55 Go

Q:

For individuals with colon cancer, it is common to undergo a surgical procedure during which a large section of the large intestine is surgically removed and the rest of the colon is surgically ligated back together. Which of the following physiologic effects may such a procedure have on the gastrointestinal system?

A

Biliary system congestion.

B

A decrease in muscular tone of the sigmoid colon and rectum.

C

A limit the downstream effects of secretin.

D

Increase the water content of stool.

Tags: Digestive System |

56 Go

Q:

The liver is responsible for:

I. Metabolism of fat.
II. Destruction of erythrocytes.
III. Storage of various vitamins.

A

I

B

I and III

C

III

D

I, II, and III

Tags: Digestive System |

57 Go

Q:

Gastrin is primarily released by:

A

chief cells.

B

mucous cells.

C

parietal cells.

D

G cells.

Tags: Digestive System |

58 Go

Q:

Chief cells are primarily responsible for:

A

repolarization of rod and cone cells.

B

facilitating intestinal motility.

C

supporting neuronal cells.

D

release of zymogens.

Tags: Digestive System |

59 Go

Q:

Bile acids are formed by metabolism of:

A

cholesterol.

B

hypodrophilic steroid molecules.

C

phospholipids

D

saturated fatty acids.

Tags: Digestive System |

60 Go

Q:

Arabinose is an indigestible sugar and known inhibitor of sucrase which breaks down sucrose in the lumen of the small intestine. Assuming sucrose itself is not absorbed through the small intestine, which of the following effects would arabinose in the diet be expected to have?

A

Increase the caloric impact of a food.

B

Increase the production of insulin by the body.

C

Decrease the glycemic impact of foods with sucrose as a sweetener.

D

The presence of arabinose would not affect the overall impact of sucrose on the body.

Tags: Miscellaneous Biology | Digestive System |

61 Go

Q:

Which of the following would be expected in an individual who has their descending and transverse colon surgically removed?
I. profound diarrhea
II. decreased fat absorption
III. decreased carbohydrate absorption

A

I only

B

I and II only

C

I and III only

D

II and III only

Tags: Digestive System |

62 Go

Q:

A decrease in function of the enteric nervous system would likely result in:

A

decreased vision.

B

decreased ability to urinate.

C

increased heart rate.

D

poor digestion.

Tags: Digestive System |

63 Go

Q:

The bile duct system does NOT involve which of the following organs?

A

liver

B

stomach

C

gallbladder

D

duodenum

Tags: Digestive System |

64 Go

Q:

Bile is primarily stored in the:

A

pancreas.

B

gallbladder.

C

liver.

D

small intestine.

Tags: Digestive System |

65 Go

Q:

Which of the following organs plays an important role in glucose regulation in the body?

A

liver

B

large intestine

C

gallbladder

D

stomach

Tags: Digestive System |

66 Go

Q:

Which of the following structures in the digestive tract would be expected to have the highest pOH?

A

saliva

B

stomach

C

duodenum

D

large intestine

Tags: Digestive System |

67 Go

Q:

A deficiency in the body of chief cells may result in:

A

decreased protein digestion.

B

increased calcium reabsorption.

C

decreased sodium excretion.

D

decreased bile production.

Tags: Digestive System |

68 Go

Q:

Lacteals within the body are responsible for:

A

delivery of milk to various breast ducts.

B

transport of proteins through the CNS.

C

providing blood flow to specific smooth muscle groups.

D

absorption of digested fats.

Tags: Digestive System |

69 Go

Q:

Glycogen is primarily made and stored in the:

A

liver.

B

gastrointestinal tract.

C

adipose tissue.

D

brain.

Tags: Digestive System |

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