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There are 33 questions tagged under Renal System.

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1 Go

Q:

Which of the following is composed primarily of blood vessels?

A

The retina

B

The glomerulus

C

The trachea

D

The heart

Tags: Renal System |

2 Go

Q:

Urine passes from the kidney to the bladder via which of the following structures?

A

urethra

B

ureter

C

renal tubule

D

Loop of Henle

Tags: Renal System |

3 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A

Controlling the volume of the body's fluids.

B

Excretion of nitrogenous waste.

C

Controlling the pH of plasma.

D

Storing excess quantities of urine.

Tags: Renal System |

4 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not a component of a nephron, the functional unit of the kidney?

A

Loop of Henle

B

Bowman's Capsule

C

Distal convoluted tubule

D

Ureter

Tags: Renal System |

5 Go

Q:

Which of the following is the correct pathway for the formation and excretion of urine?

A

Glomerular Capsule, Loop of Henle, Bladder, Urethra

B

Loop of Henle, Glomerular Capsule, Bladder, Urethra

C

Glomerular Capsule, Loop of Henle, Bladder, Ureter

D

Loop of Henle, Glomerular Capsule, Bladder, Ureter

Tags: Renal System |

6 Go

Q:

The passage of large kidney stones typically causes blockage of passageways first in the

A

kidney

B

ureter

C

bladder

D

urethra

Tags: Renal System |

7 Go

Q:

The walls of the digestive tract, blood vessels and urinary bladder are composed of what type of muscle?

A

striated, voluntary

B

non-striated, involuntary

C

non-striated, voluntary

D

striated, involuntary

Tags: Circulatory System | Digestive System | Renal System | Musculoskeletal System |

8 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A

to regulate plasma pH

B

to produce insulin and glucagon

C

to remove waste products

D

to regulate body fluid volume and solute concentration

Tags: Renal System |

9 Go

Q:

An increase in the permeability of the glomerular membrane would be expected to have which of the following effects?

A

Increased filtration rate

B

Increased reabsorption capabilities at the collecting duct

C

Decreased urine production

D

Decreased osmolarity of blood

Tags: Renal System |

10 Go

Q:

The fluid released by the renal glomerulus and collected by the Bowman's capsule is most similar in composition to which of the following fluids?

A

urine

B

whole blood

C

saliva

D

interstitial fluid

Tags: Renal System |

11 Go

Q:

The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a value which measures the mL of blood which the kidneys pass through its glomeruli per minute. Which of the following would not explain an increased GFR?

A

Increased permeability of a majority of glomeruli

B

Decreased blood pressure

C

Increased flow through the renal artery, all else constant

D

All of the above explain an increased GFR

Tags: Renal System |

12 Go

Q:

Which of the following effects on urine production would be expected if there were vasoconstriction in the efferent glomerular arteriole?

A

decrease the volume of urine production due to increased glomeruluar blood pressure

B

decrease the volume of urine production due to decreased glomeruluar blood pressure

C

increase the volume of urine production due to decreased glomeruluar blood pressure

D

increase the volume of urine production due to increased glomeruluar blood pressure

Tags: Renal System |

13 Go

Q:

The fluid released by the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule is essentially identical to which of the following?

A

interstitial fluid

B

urine

C

vitreous humor

D

synovial fluid

Tags: Renal System |

14 Go

Q:

An increase in blood pressure will NOT result in higher urine output if which of the following is true?

A

The blood has a high solute content.

B

The blood has a low solute content.

C

Aldosterone and ADH levels decrease to increase water resorption.

D

Aldosterone and ADH increase to increase water resorption.

Tags: Renal System |

15 Go

Q:

In order for a drug to be able to be excreted via the urine, the drug or its metabolites must:

A

be ionic in nature

B

be peptide-based

C

traverse the membrane of the glomerulus

D

enter the urine separate from blood circulation

Tags: Renal System |

16 Go

Q:

Which path correctly outlines the flow of filtrate through the nephron?

A

Collecting duct - descending loop of Henle - ascending loop of Henle - distal tubule

B

Proximal tubule - ascending loop of Henle - descending loop of Henle - distal tubule

C

Distal tubule - ascending loop of Henle - descending loop of Henle - proximal tubule

D

Proximal tubule - descending loop of Henle - ascending loop of Henle - distal tubule

Tags: Renal System |

17 Go

Q:

The kidneys play a role in all of the following processes EXCEPT:

A

Filtering plasma through glomerulus

B

Increased absorption of water with stimulation of vasopressin

C

Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system

D

Vasoconstriction

Tags: Renal System |

18 Go

Q:

Which of the following structures within the nephron is responsible for the majority of sodium reabsorption?

A

Glomerulus

B

Proximal tubule

C

Distal tubule

D

Collecting duct

Tags: Renal System |

19 Go

Q:

Which of the following vitamins, if consumed in large amounts, would be expected to be excreted in the urine?

A

Vitamin A

B

Vitamin C

C

Vitamin E

D

Vitamin K

Tags: Renal System |

20 Go

Q:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) has two primary functions: retain water in the body and constrict blood vessels. During emergency situations, ADH is released in order to counteract blood loss. Which of the following best describes the mode of action for ADH during this event?

A

ADH increases blood pressure by acting on the kidney to cause decreased urine production

B

ADH increases blood pressure by acting on the kidney to cause increased urine production

C

ADH acts on blood vessels to cause vasodilation, thus decreasing blood loss

D

ADH acts on blood vessels to cause vasodilation, thus increasing blood loss

Tags: Renal System | Hormonal Regulation |

21 Go

Q:

The kidneys normally do a very good job at ensuring glucose is not lost in urine. Which of the following best describes this process?

A

Facilitated diffusion with a glucose carrier

B

Active transport using a glucose pump

C

Glucose is selectively retained and not filtered into urine

D

By using a symporter to carry glucose with Na+

Tags: Renal System | Membrane Transport and Signalling |

22 Go

Q:

In untreated diabetics, excess glucose in the blood is due to incomplete reabsorption (normally done by transporters present in the nephrons of the kidney) and subsequent excretion in the urine. Which of the following best describes this effect?

A

The transporters are inhibited by high levels of glucose

B

The Vmax of the transporter is reached at lower blood glucose levels

C

The binding affinity of these transporters is increased in diabetics

D

The binding capacity of the transporters has been exceeded

Tags: Membrane Transport and Signalling | Renal System | Protein Structure and Function | Carbohydrates |

23 Go

Q:

What type of drug would be best suited to increasing urine production?

A

A drug which decreases the vascular pressure in the glomerulus.

B

An aldosterone receptor antagonist

C

A thyroxine mimic.

D

An antidiuretic hormone mimic

Tags: Hormonal Regulation | Renal System |

24 Go

Q:

Which of the following would decrease the effects of respiratory acidosis?

A

Decrease in breathing rate.

B

Decrease in bicarbonate retention.

C

Increase in the transport of H+ through the nephron.

D

Increase in liver excretion of urea.

Tags: Renal System | Respiratory System |

25 Go

Q:

In the kidney, the majority of sodium is reabsorbed in the:

A

proximal tubule.

B

descending loop.

C

thick ascending loop.

D

collecting duct.

Tags: Renal System |

26 Go

Q:

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH) is a condition where ADH is improperly released and is commonly seen in various cancers. Which of the following would be expected in a patient with SIADH?

A

low serum sodium

B

high serum sodium

C

high urine chloride

D

decreased blood pressure

Tags: Renal System |

27 Go

Q:

Which of the following structures is unrelated to renin-angiotensin system?

A

adrenal gland

B

juxtaglomerular apparatus

C

hypothalamus

D

distal tubule of the nephron

Tags: Renal System |

28 Go

Q:

The loop of Henle of a nephron is housed in which component of the kidney?

A

vasa recta

B

cortex

C

medulla

D

renal pelvis

Tags: Renal System |

29 Go

Q:

A patient is found to have a renal disease causing excess excretion of bicarbonate in the urine. This would be most likely to result in:

A

increased PTH release.

B

decreased pH of the blood.

C

increased numbers of protons released in the urine.

D

increased calcium reabsorption from the gut.

Tags: Renal System |

30 Go

Q:

Which of the following structures of the nephron is generally only permeable to water?

A

proximal convoluted tubule

B

distal convoluted tubule

C

ascending loop of Henle

D

descending loop of Henle

Tags: Renal System |

31 Go

Q:

Reabsorption, as it relates to the kidney, refers to:

A

movement of solutes from the blood to the ureters.

B

exchange of solutes from the bladder and ureters to the blood stream.

C

movement of solutes from the filtrate back to the blood stream.

D

movement of solutes from the blood stream to the filtrate.

Tags: Renal System |

32 Go

Q:

Which of the following would NOT be expected to be found in glomerular filtrate?

A

red blood cells

B

protons

C

sodium

D

urea

Tags: Renal System |

33 Go

Q:

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH) represents a physiologic state in which the body releases more ADH than required. This would likely result in:

A

decreased urine osmolarity.

B

increased serum osmolarity.

C

increased expression of ADH receptors.

D

increased urine sodium concentration.

Tags: Renal System | Endocrine System |

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