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There are 69 questions tagged under Evolution.

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1 Go

Q:

Which of the following is an example of habituation?

A

Chickadees learning new songs when they shift to living in large winter flocks from small family groups.

B

Yearly migration of golden plovers from Arctic breeding grounds to South America.

C

A pack of lions stalking a prey.

D

Hydra initially contract when touched, but soon stop responding.

Tags: Evolution |

2 Go

Q:

An environmental pressure favors members of a species who are either taller than average or shorter than average; those of average height are selected against. Which of the following best describes this form of selection?

A

stabilizing selection

B

directional selection

C

disruptive selection

D

reverse selection

Tags: Evolution |

3 Go

Q:

Some animals are commonly said to follow the first thing they see as their mother. Which of the following best describes this behavior?

A

conditioning

B

habituation

C

imprinting

D

selection

Tags: Evolution |

4 Go

Q:

A certain saltwater reptile is under study. The females are noted to lay between 300-400 eggs on the water bottom. The offspring are noted to have low survival rate due to predation; parents are not involved in nurture or care of offspring. Which of the following best describes an aspect of this particular species?

A

The species operates under r-selection

B

The species operates under the principle of survival of the fittest

C

The species operates under K-selection

D

The species underwent an evolutionary bottleneck

Tags: Evolution |

5 Go

Q:

The blind mole rat is a burrowing rodent living mainly in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea regions. The blind mole rat is entirely blind, yet still possesses eyes covered by a layer of skin. The eyes of a blind mole rat are

A

Examples of convergent evolution

B

Homologous structures

C

Vestigial structures

D

Analogous structures

Tags: Evolution |

6 Go

Q:

In Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the allele present in the higher frequency is:

A

always the dominant allele

B

always the recessive allele

C

sometimes the recessive allele and sometimes the dominant allele, but never both simultaneously

D

sometimes the recessive allele and sometimes the dominant allele, but sometimes both simultaneously

Tags: Evolution |

7 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not a mode of natural selection?

A

stabilizing selection

B

sexual selection

C

directional selection

D

diversifying selection

Tags: Evolution |

8 Go

Q:

The seeds of maple trees are often called whirlybirds (or helicopters) because of the distinctive way they spin as the fall to the ground, much like a helicopter. Such an adaptation is favorable because it

A

increases the area a single tree can disperse to

B

gives the seed less time to hit the ground

C

allows for higher mutation rate in seed production, allowing for higher variability

D

None of the above

Tags: Evolution |

9 Go

Q:

The origin of goosebumps is largely unknown. Since goosebumps make hair stand upright, it may have been used human evolutionary ancestors to appear larger in size. It may have also served to insulate heat. This information suggests that goosebumps are which of the following?

A

Involuntary

B

Voluntary

C

Hyperactive

D

Vestigial

Tags: Evolution |

10 Go

Q:

A rocky island appears as oceanic waters recede. Which of the following forms of vegetation would probably appear first on the bare rocks?

A

lichens

B

weeds

C

shrubs

D

pioneer trees

Tags: Evolution |

11 Go

Q:

Two proteins from different species are found to have substantially different amino acid sequences and are not homologous. Yet, these two proteins carry out nearly identical function. This is an example of:

A

Convergent Evolution

B

Divergent Evolution

C

Coevolution

D

None of the above; the terms A-C are used only to describe homologous structures.

Tags: Evolution |

12 Go

Q:

Gene copying and shuffling occurs during evolution. This process is likely to be beneficial to a species for which of the following reasons?

A

Gene copying and shuffling provides efficient dissemination of genes to gametes, resulting in fewer mutations in offspring and preserving proper gene functions.

B

Gene copying and shuffling is likely to move a gene into a mutation-resistant zone of the genome and hence the gene is safer from mutation than it was before.

C

Gene copying and shuffling produces paralogs. If one of the genes becomes mutated, there is still another copy that remains functional. Evolution of the mutated gene can thus provide new function without loss of function of the original gene, increasing the likelihood that mutants with new function will survive.

D

Gene copying and shuffling allows genes to be read in novel ways, producing novel proteins and function.

Tags: Evolution |

13 Go

Q:

Convergent evolution defines the process of

A

two unrelated species merging into one.

B

two species of different niches merging their niches.

C

different subtypes of a species merging into a single, uniform type.

D

two unrelated species acquiring similar traits.

Tags: Evolution |

14 Go

Q:

Mealybugs, a type of scale insect, have distinct male and female forms. The male is black and flies to mate. The female is white, lacks wings, and resembles a barnacle. Mealybugs are a great example of

A

sexual dualism

B

sexual dimorphism

C

hermaphrodites

D

monoecious organisms

Tags: Evolution |

15 Go

Q:

Mantis shrimp exhibit complex mating habits compared to many other crustaceans. Their bodies are quite colorful and their eyesight is superior to that of humans, particularly in their ability to detect ultraviolet and infrared light. Curiously, those species of mantis shrimp with the best eyesight are also those that are the most colorful. This fact suggests that

A

mantis shrimp are monogamous

B

mantis shrimp exhibit advanced feeding patterns compared to other crustaceans

C

vision and coloration co-evolved as vision improved, seeing coloration, and coloration improved, being more attractive

D

male mantis shrimp are more colorful than female mantis shrimp

Tags: Evolution |

16 Go

Q:

A set of separate species acquire similar adaptations independently. Which of the following evolutionary mechanisms could have achieved this?

I. Divergent evolution
II. Convergent evolution
III. Parallel evolution

A

II only

B

III only

C

I and II only

D

II and III only

Tags: Evolution |

17 Go

Q:

One theory for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts is called the autogenous theory; that the two organelles arose from internal differentiation. Another theory is known as the endosymbiotic theory and posits that the organelles were originally separate organisms and later became engulfed and symbiotic with the larger cell. Which of the following does not provide evidence for the endosymbiotic theory OVER autogenous theory? Choose the BEST answer.

A

Cyanobacteria have the most similar gene sequence encoding for ferrodoxin and Cytochrome C to eukaryotic chloroplasts.

B

Chloroplasts and mitochondria have considerably smaller genomes than free-living bacteria and eukaryotes.

C

The majority of proteins used by mitochondria and chloroplasts are encoded by DNA inside the eukaryotic nuclei.

D

Mitochondria and chloroplasts have circular DNA.

Tags: Evolution |

18 Go

Q:

How many of the following contribute to genetic variability?

1. Formation of chiasmata between homologous chromosomes
2. Co-dominance between two alleles
3. Independent assortment of chromosomes during Meiosis I
4. Backcrossing between pure dominant or pure recessive phenotypes
5. Mendel's Third Law of Segregation

A

Two

B

Three

C

All five

D

None

Tags: Human Genetics | Evolution |

19 Go

Q:

Which of the following describes a relationship between two organisms where one party benefits and there is no effect for the other?

A

symbiosis

B

commensalism

C

parasitism

D

mutualism

Tags: Evolution |

20 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not a criterion for the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?

A

large population

B

random mating

C

selection for the fittest organism

D

gene pool is not changed by the migration of members of the population

Tags: Evolution |

21 Go

Q:

Which of the following reproductive strategies involve producing a large number of offspring that require little parental care and mature quickly?

A

K-selection

B

niche reproduction

C

convergent evolution

D

r-selection

Tags: Evolution |

22 Go

Q:

In a population, there are only two alleles for a gene: B (dominant allele) and b (recessive allele). The ratio of B to b alleles in the population is 4 to 1. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the likeliness that a member of the population is heterozygous?

A

2/25

B

4/25

C

8/25

D

16/25

Tags: Mendelian Concepts | Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

23 Go

Q:

In which of the following populations is the recessive phenotype more abundant than the dominant phenotype, where p represents the dominant allele and q represents the recessive allele?

A

p = 0.4, q = 0.6

B

p = 0.3, q = 0.7

C

p = 0.2, q = 0.8

D

The recessive genotype is more abundant than the dominant phenotype in all of these populations

Tags: Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

24 Go

Q:

Within a particular very large population, the allele frequency for a mammalian gene is p = 0.8, q = 0.2. Over the course of a few months, the allele frequency rapidly changes to p = 0.5, q = 0.5. Which of the following most likely caused the change?

A

Genetic Drift

B

Speciation

C

Mutation

D

Bottleneck

Tags: Evolution |

25 Go

Q:

If a mutant gene is present in a gene pool as a dominant allele and the homozygous dominant genotype is lethal, what fraction of viable offspring will have at least one copy of the mutant gene in a cross between two heterozygotes?

A

1/3

B

1/2

C

2/3

D

3/4

Tags: Evolution |

26 Go

Q:

Gene duplication events are common drivers of increasing complexity in organisms. How might selective pressures on such genes be different from the selective pressures on the original gene?

A

Selective pressures on the new gene would be stronger because mutations on the gene are more likely to be deleterious and costly to the organism

B

Selective pressures on the new gene would be weaker because mutations in the new gene would not likely affect the organism since the original gene is still present

C

Selective pressures on the new gene would be stronger because mutations in the new gene would not likely affect the organism since the original gene is still present

D

Selective pressures on the new gene would be weaker because mutations on the gene are more likely to be deleterious and costly to the organism

Tags: Evolution |

27 Go

Q:

A population of lizards is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The gene for green color is dominant (G) and the gene for brown color is recessive (g). If the population consists of 1000 individuals and 250 of them are brown, how many heterozygotes are in the population?

A

250

B

500

C

650

D

750

Tags: Evolution |

28 Go

Q:

Enteric bacteria (bacteria in the gut) in a human host exist in which of the following biological interactions?

A

Parasitism

B

Symbiosis

C

Commensalism

D

None of the above

Tags: Evolution |

29 Go

Q:

Which of the following processes contributes most to genetic diversity among a population of bacterium?

A

Conjugation

B

Binary fission

C

Transformation from a population of clones

D

Asexual reproduction

Tags: Evolution | Prokaryotes |

30 Go

Q:

Male turkeys possess wattles which are large, fleshy tissue around the neck and head area. Large wattles serve as a sign of high testosterone and often indicative of reproductive ability. Wattles are an example of

A

primary sex characteristics

B

secondary sex characteristics

C

vestigial structures

D

constitutive structures

Tags: Evolution |

31 Go

Q:

Which of the following is an example of a polymorphism?

A

A whale's fin and a human hand

B

The existence of different heights among the human population

C

The dark form of jaguar which exists in about 5% of the jaguar population

D

All of the above

Tags: Evolution |

32 Go

Q:

Antifreeze proteins are produced by certain organisms to help protect their cells against damage from ice crystals. These proteins evolved independently in a variety of different species in accordance with multiple historical ice ages. Such evolution is an example of:

A

divergent evolution

B

convergent evolution

C

parallel evolution

D

none of the above

Tags: Evolution |

33 Go

Q:

For a population of birds in Hardy-Weingberg equilibrium, the red color is dominant while the purple color is recessive. For a sample of 1000 birds, if 640 are purple, what percentage of the birds are heterozygotes?

A

8%

B

32%

C

36%

D

The answer cannot be determined with the given information.

Tags: Mendelian Concepts | Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

34 Go

Q:

For a species in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, if the frequencies of a dominant/recessive allele are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, what is the percentage of dominant phenotypes in the population?

A

40%

B

60%

C

64%

D

84%

Tags: Mendelian Concepts | Evolution |

35 Go

Q:

Certain small, isolated populations have a higher rates of particular of genetic diseases that are otherwise very rare. These diseases are more common in certain populations due to:

A

genetic drift of those populations.

B

inbreeding in those populations.

C

a higher percentage of males and thus higher incidence of sex-linked conditions.

D

bottleneck effect in those populations.

Tags: Evolution |

36 Go

Q:

Which of the following would cause a population to deviate MOST from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A

The population of individuals becomes geographically isolated from another population.

B

The population of individuals is very large and mating happens at random.

C

A bottleneck kills 30% of the population at random.

D

Homozygous recessive individuals are more vulnerable to predators due to their phenotype preventing proper camouflaging.

Tags: Evolution |

37 Go

Q:

The spotted touch-me-not, a flowering plant, has seed pods that burst open when touched and forcefully eject their seeds. Such an adaptation is favorable because it

A

aids in the dispersal of the species

B

attracts insects that aid in pollination

C

prevents germination within the seed pod

D

can cause genetic changes to occur

Tags: Evolution |

38 Go

Q:

The swim bladder is a structure in certain fishes which sits along the dorsal end of the fish is a gas-filled chamber used to help the fish regulate buoyancy but is not used for oxygenation of blood. This structure is evolutionarily homologous to the mammalian lung. Which of the following describes the relationship between the lung and the swim bladder?

A

divergent evolution

B

convergent evolution

C

parallel evolution

D

The two structures are not related by evolution.

Tags: Evolution |

39 Go

Q:

Many megafauna (giant animals) like the giant tortoise are known to have undergone drastic and rapid population decreases in relatively recent history. This population reduction is an example of which of the following?

A

mutation

B

bottleneck effect

C

divergent evolution

D

loss of symbiosis

Tags: Evolution |

40 Go

Q:

In a sample of 1000 individuals from a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 600 are found to have at least one copy of a defective recessive gene. How many individuals have two copies of the defective gene?

A

130

B

360

C

400

D

The answer cannot be determined with the given information.

Tags: Mitosis and Meiosis | Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

41 Go

Q:

The Cambrian explosion occurred 540 to 520 million years ago and involved a rapid development of many modern animal groups. The Cambrian explosion is an example of which of the following?

A

Convergent evolution

B

Divergent evolution

C

Parallel evolution

D

Contra evolution

Tags: Evolution |

42 Go

Q:

DEET is an organic compound that has been shown to be effective at repelling mosquitoes. Despite being in use for decades, mosquitoes have not developed notable resistance to the compound and it remains an effective repellent. In contrast, bed bugs, which feed primarily on human blood, have largely grown resistant to most pesticides used to exterminate them. Which of the following best explains why mosquitoes have not developed resistance to DEET?

A

The evolutionary timescale for mosquitoes is too long to develop resistance in a few decades.

B

Humans are only incidental prey for mosquitoes, which consume most of their blood from birds and other mammals.

C

DEET is not toxic to mosquitoes.

D

DEET use is relatively widespread and used frequently in the presence of most mosquito populations.

Tags: Evolution |

43 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not an assumption made for a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A

the population has an infinite size

B

the population does not experience any mutation

C

there is no migration to or from the gene pool

D

the population undergoes natural selection through selective breeding based on fitness

Tags: Evolution |

44 Go

Q:

Urate oxidase is an enzyme found in organisms from bacteria to mammals and catalyzes nucleic acid degradation. Although humans have the gene, it is nonfunctional. Which of the following would best help identify the recency of the loss of function?

A

A measurement of the degree of mutation of the gene as compared with other functional genes.

B

A comparison of primate and other mammalian genes to identify the related species with the mutation in common.

C

An analysis of the number of nucleotides in the gene to assess the chances of mutation.

D

A test of whether reverting the gene to a functional form is lethal in humans.

Tags: Evolution |

45 Go

Q:

Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant disorder. If the frequency of the dominant allele for Huntington's disease is 0.6 in a particular isolated population, what proportion of the population is free of the disease?

A

36%

B

48%

C

40%

D

16%

Tags: Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

46 Go

Q:

A population of 500 birds is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Straight feathers are completely dominant over curly feathers. If 25% of the individuals have curly feathers, how many individuals are heterozygotes?

A

125

B

250

C

375

D

450

Tags: Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

47 Go

Q:

A eukaryotic gene is discovered whose coding region is approximately 1000 base pairs. The same gene is present in many organisms from worms to humans, and researchers find there are almost no differences between the gene sequences of different organisms. The gene is most likely involved in which of the following:

A

running a core metabolic pathway

B

assisting immune function

C

embryonic development

D

neural function

Tags: Evolution |

48 Go

Q:

Which of the following is not a requirement of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A

Mating is random

B

Allele frequencies are exactly equal in both sexes

C

There is no mutation of genes

D

Organisms are haploid

Tags: Evolution |

49 Go

Q:

Albinism in some species is a recessive trait. If 90% of the alleles in this species are dominant and 10% are recessive, how many heterozygotes would be expected in a population of 100 animals? Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

A

14

B

18

C

24

D

32

Tags: Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

50 Go

Q:

Two completely distinct genuses of butterflies have quite similar wing colorations. It is discovered that a common ancestor between these two types of butterflies had similar coloration. Which type of evolution can this be described as?

A

Convergent evolution

B

Parallel evolution

C

Divergent evolution

D

Horizontal evolution

Tags: Evolution |

51 Go

Q:

In a population of 1000 in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 160 individuals are homozygous dominant for a trait. With this population, there are X individuals which have this dominant gene. Which of the following is the value of X?

A

160

B

480

C

640

D

720

Tags: Evolution | Quantitative Skills |

52 Go

Q:

Ribosomes as molecular structures have been found to be highly evolutionarily conserved. It has been found that:

A

prokaryotes and eukaryotes both have identical ribosome structures.

B

prokaryotes do not have ribosomes.

C

eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes are both composed of 2 subunits.

D

eukaryotes and prokaryotes have similar ribosomes, however they are not used for translation in prokaryotes.

Tags: Evolution | Eukaryotic Cells | Prokaryotes |

53 Go

Q:

Mice homozygous for a lethal recessive allele die shortly after birth. Taking advantage of the fact that mice breed several times a year and have large litters, an experiment establishes a breeding colony of over 1,000 mice, and surprisingly, between 4 and 6% of all newborns die from this trait. Moreover, the same proportion of offspring have been dying from this trait in this colony for the past five years. Which of the following best describes the persistence of this lethal allele at such a frequency?

A

There is a reproductive advantage for homozygous recessive mice

B

Gene flow maintains the allele at this frequency

C

Genetic drift maintains the allele at this frequency

D

There is some sort of heterozygote advantage and perhaps selection against the homozygous dominant trait.

Tags: Evolution |

54 Go

Q:

Central to modern evolutionary theory, which of the following best describes the concept of an individual with greater relative fitness?

A

That individual survives longer than other individuals

B

That individual produces relatively more surviving offspring than other individuals

C

That individual is less likely to experience directional selection

D

That individual shows more dominant alleles in its phenotype compared to other individuals

Tags: Evolution |

55 Go

Q:

Which of the following best describes the population where genetic drift would play the most important role in evolution?

A

A population of thermophiles (microbes) near an undersea hydrothermal vent

B

A seabird population afflicted by the effects of an oil spill

C

A bear population on an island in a large, inland Canadian lake

D

A bacterial population currently under experimental antibiotic conditions

Tags: Evolution |

56 Go

Q:

Anagenesis is a type of rapid evolution where a dramatic transformation occurs in the ancestral form, but no new species is formed. In fact, the ancestor species can be considered extinct, as it is therefore superseded by the new species it morphs into. This transformation is in contrast with cladogenesis, which is an evolutionary branching speciation where a parent species splits into two distinct species (this can occur when a few organisms end up in new, distant area). Which of the following is NOT an example of an anagenetic process?

A

Gene flow

B

Genetic drift

C

Natural selection

D

Sexual reproduction

Tags: Evolution |

57 Go

Q:

An ultra-conserved element is a genetic sequence that does not change in at least two different species, often in distantly-related species. Where are these elements most likely to be found?

A

catalytic regions of metabolic enzymes

B

binding regions cell surface proteins

C

DNA-binding regions of transcription factors

D

non-catalytic regions of digestive enzymes

Tags: Protein Structure and Function | Evolution |

58 Go

Q:

A fish species is found to have a genetic adaptation allowing it to live in far more acidic waters than other members of its family. If the adaptation did not come at the cost of any other functionality compared to other members of the family, what would have been required to occur during the evolution of this fish species?

A

point mutation

B

chromosomal translocation

C

frameshift mutation

D

gene duplication event

Tags: Genetic Code, Transcription, Translation | Evolution |

59 Go

Q:

Which of the following genes would be expected to be found across the widest array of different organisms?

A

glucose membrane transporter

B

sodium-potassium pump

C

dopamine receptor

D

keratin

Tags: Eukaryotic Tissues | Evolution |

60 Go

Q:

Which of the following is accurate regarding inclusive fitness?

A

it has been used as a counterargument for the existence of altruism.

B

it is directly equal to the number of offspring an organism has.

C

in some contexts, it is also referred to as personal fitness.

D

it involves the notion that fitness depends on passing of genes of organisms that are close in genetic composition.

Tags: Evolution |

61 Go

Q:

Which of the following molecules would be expected to be found in the metabolic pathway of the greatest number of living organisms?

A

pyruvate

B

hydrogen sulfide

C

histones

D

terpenes

Tags: Evolution |

62 Go

Q:

Movement of the same species to various geographical locations which later become geographically isolated can result in:

A

divergent evolution.

B

convergent evolution.

C

parallel evolution.

D

migratory evolution.

Tags: Evolution |

63 Go

Q:

Which of the following is NOT a condition that must be met for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A

mating is random

B

the number of males and females in the population is roughly similar

C

the population size is fairly large

D

the gene pool is unaffected by immigration or emigration

Tags: Evolution |

64 Go

Q:

In genetics, penetrance refers to:

A

the proportion of individuals with a particular phenotype who have a particular genotype.

B

the proportion of individuals with a particular genotype who express a particular phenotype.

C

the required proportion of individuals in a population with a particular genotype or that genotype to persist in subsequent generations.

D

how deletirious a particular gene is to the fitness of an organism.

Tags: Evolution |

65 Go

Q:

Organisms in which of the following are most closely related?

A

Order

B

Class

C

Family

D

Phylum

Tags: Evolution |

66 Go

Q:

Two desert plants are found to have an octagonal arrangement of their core plant structure. Further study of these plants reveals that one plant is of the Caryophyllales order and the other is of the Malpighiales order. These two orders are largely distinct without many common features, either on a structural or cellular level. This serves as an example of:

A

convergent evolution.

B

divergent evolution.

C

parallel evolution.

D

coevolution.

Tags: Evolution |

67 Go

Q:

A small island in the pacific is noticed to have a disproportional number of individuals with red-green color-blindness. This may have been caused by:

I. a bottleneck.
II. genetic drift.
the founder effect.

A

I only

B

I and II only

C

II and III only

D

I, II, and III

Tags: Evolution | Mendelian Concepts |

68 Go

Q:

Organisms that are within which of the following classes would be expected to share the largest proportion of genetic material?

A

phylum

B

family

C

order

D

class

Tags: Evolution |

69 Go

Q:

A particular population of jellyfish may glow bright green, the dominant phenotype, or may glow blue, which is the recessive phenotype. The green allele is G whereas the blue allele is g. The frequency of the GG genotype is found to be 0.35. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, approximately many heterozygous jellyfish would be expected in a population of 100 jellyfish?

A

20

B

30

C

40

D

50

Tags: Evolution | Mendelian Concepts |

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